“ Be the Change that you want to see in the world. ” ...is by Mahatma Gandhi...

4 settembre 2012

Kalachakra History




'I call out to all lineage Masters past and present,
Especially the original seven Shambala Masters,And the twenty-five Kalkins of Shambala.Especially I call to Suchandra, who first received this king of tantras,And to Pundarika, who wrote the extensive commentary.By the power of the auspicious qualities of these Masters,May all of our hindrances and imperfections fade awayAnd goodness and joy increase like the waxing moon,Giving rise to a festival of wonder and glory.From 'An aspiration to fulfil the stages of the glorious Kalachakra path'by the first Panchen Lama, translation Glenn Mullin [12]

HISTORY OF THE KALACHAKRA TRADITION

The Kalachakra system is clearly related to the ancient Vedic tradition in India which existed long before Buddhism appeared.

The Kalachakra refers to many different traditions, for example the Hindu; Saivite, Samkya, Vaishnava, the Vedas, Upanisads and Puranas traditions, but also Jainism. For example, the Kalachakra mandala includes deities which are equally accepted by Hindus, Jainas and Buddhists.

Vesna Wallace writes [10], "The Kalacakratantra contends that there is no distinction between the Buddhist and heterodox groups with regard to the manner in which conventional reality appears. ... Thus within the Kalacakra system, all the aspects of the natural world become legitimate fields of Buddhists' scientific investigation, and knowledge of the various scientific fields becomes a significant component of the Buddhist Dharma as the body of verifyable truths. ... provisional scientific knowledge is seen as an integral part of ultimate scientific knowledge."

David Reigle suggests [1], "Among the many traditional ideas which must be mastered to understand Kalachakra are several which are not found within Buddhism.... These include .... the Sankya system .... the Mandukya Upanisad .... and even the Jaina tradition."

However, as Vesna Wallace indicates in [10], "in many instances the Kalachakra tantra uses terminology from other systems, but actually attributes them with new meaning to incorporate them into the unique Kalachakra model of conventional reality". So, although terminology of other systems is often used, many concepts are not simply copied, but various expressions from other traditions are used to indicate different concepts in the Kalachakra.

The Kalachakra tantra puts the life of Shakyamuni Buddha in the 9th. Century BCE, instead of the more commonly accepted 6th. Century BCE. There is also some discussion on when Shakyamuni Buddha taught the Kalachakra during his life time. Because of specific time indications in the teachings, it could have been one year after he attained enlightenment, but others say it was one year before he passed away. According to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, logic indicates that it must have been at the end of his life, because the Kalachakra tantra reflects so many of his lifelong accomplishments.

It should be remembered here that 'the historical facts' are often hard to establish. For example, according to His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Shambhala is "not a physical place that we can actually find" and "pure land in the human realm". So below can be considered a mix of some historic facts with the historic data in the Kalachakra Tantra itself.

At the request of King Suchandra of Shambhala (the first king of Shambala of any importance), Shakyamuni Buddha took on the form of the Kalachakra deity and gave these advanced teachings to a great assembly of sages in southern India, at the Stupa of Dhanyakataka (current-day Amaravati).

While teaching the tantra, Shakyamuni manifested the entire Kalachakra mandala in its full 3D form. Furthermore, a second mandala called the Glorious Constellation Mandala appeared on the ceiling which represented the cosmos with planets and comets. Interestingly (possibly to symbolise the relativity of time), the entire initiation took place within a finger-snap, whereas nowadays it takes three full days to complete.

Suchandra

Manjushrikirti

Pundarika

Raudra Chakrin


King Suchandra came from Shambhala (some say north of Kashmir) to request and receive the Kalachakra teachings from Shakyamuni Buddha. After the teachings, he wrote them down and composed the 'Mula' or 'Root Text' of the Kalachakra tantra, comprising 12,000 verses. However, this text has never reached us. On the request of Shakyamuni Buddha, he built a huge 3-dimensional Kalachakra mandala in the centre of the kingdom. Suchandra (see image on the right) was the first of a line of seven religious kings who taught the Kalachakra to the inhabitants of Shambhala. 2 Years after receiving the Kalachakra teachings he died and was followed by 6 Kings, each reigning 100 years over Shambala. These first 7 kings are called the 7 Dharma-Kings.

The following kings of Shambhala are known as the Kalki kings or "Rigden"-kings; meaning "Holder of the Castes" or the Shambala's Knowledge Holders.

The first Kalki king, Manjushrikirti put the Kalachakra teachings in a condensed and simplified form, called the "Sri Kalachakra" or "Laghutantra". He also converted a group of non-Buddhist Brahman priests of Shambala to Buddhism and gave them the Kalachakra initiation to unite all inhabitants into one "vajra family" - or family of tantric practitioners.
The second Kalki king, Pundarika wrote a commentary called "Vimalaprabha" (Skt.) or "Stainless Light". The Sri Kalachakra and the Vimalaprabha together comprise all the source texts of the Kalachakra system in our world today. All other available texts are commentaries to these root texts.

The Kalachakra Tantra text made its first appearance during the 10th century. There appeared several different lineages of the transmission of the Kalachakra lineage over the centuries, which show minor differences.


HISTORY AS DESCRIBED IN THE KALACHAKRA TRADITION

Several of the prophecies in the Kalachakra tradition are already in the past, for example, king Manjushrikirti(living in the second century BCE) predicted the coming of the "barbarian Dharma" after 800 years (about 600 CE).

The prophecy further says that during the reign of the 21st. king, Aniruddha (1927-2027), Buddhism and the Kalachakra will have nearly come to an end in Tibet, Mongolia, China and much of Asia. This could certainly be said to be accurate! For example, after the Chinese invasion in Tibet in 1959 and the destruction of nearly all monasteries afterwards, the master Ven. Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche was the only remaining Tibetan master holding a specific lineage of the Vimalaprabha (the 'Stainless Light' commentary); which is one of the only two main Kalachakra texts.

This trend of degeneration is said to continue until the incarnation of Manjushri (and of the Panchen Lama),Raudra Chakrin, comes to the throne in 2327 (or 2424 [5]).

"The cakravartin shall come out at the end of the age, from the city the gods fashioned on mount Kailasha. He shall smite the barbarians in battle with his own four-division army, on the entire surface of the earth. ... Raudra Kalki shall smite Krinmati .... then they shall go to the city the gods fashioned on Mount Kailasha where Cakri lives. At that time, all the families of men on the earth shall be fulfilled with dharma, pleasure and wealth. Grain shall grow in the wild and the trees shall bow with fruit - these things will occur. "[8]

In this way, a golden age throughout the world at the end of the current 'Time of Strife' will be established.

The texts describe that Raudra Chakrin will come with 'flying ships' (obvious in our age, but certainly not when these prophecies were written) to help us out of spiritual darkness, and afterwards the teachings of the Buddha will survive for another 1,800 [4] or 1,000 [7] years.

More detailed information can be found in the website of Alex Berzin, to quote him (from [6]):

'In the Kalachakra teachings you find a whole discussion of history, in which you have at various periods invasions. There are various, what are described as "savage hoards", who come and try to destroy civilization and all opportunities for people to follow spiritual paths. Some examples are the invasions from central Asia to India, wiping out the possibilities for practicing Hinduism and Buddhism; the Mongols and the Muslims etc. There is a prediction in the Kalachakra that there will be likewise a great invasion and a great war in the future. This war will take place in 2424. This is not the type of war that will destroy the planet, but it will probably be a pretty bad war. But at that time, the King of Shambhala will come as the good guy; the bad guys lose and the so called Golden Age is established. 

Now one of the very interesting things in the Kalachakra teachings is a great deal of social comment about what to do at the time of the invasion; how to prevent it and what are the causes. For example: we should look at our customs and also at the customs of those who want to destroy our civilization If they act very similar, then our children will see little difference between the parents and the invaders, and they will accept their ways easily. If our first reaction to a threat is war and violence, the invaders will do the same. 

Also the Kalachakra warns for what happens if the astronomy is very much in the hands of "experts" and nobody else understands it anymore: then the invaders can change the tables etc., and nobody would notice it. This can also be very relevant to our own time of computers. The younger generation depends so much on calculators and computers, they don't even know how to multiply and divide...'

In order to be reborn in Shambhala, many Tibetans make prayers, like the one by the 6th. Panchen Lama, which can be found here on the web (look under Shambhala).

Taking the Kalachakra Initiation
The shortest moment contains infinite time.
The smallest grain of dust contains infinite space.
Thich Nhat Hanh
INTRODUCTION

Kalachakra initiations are unusual in the sense that everyone can attend them, unlike other initiations which are only given to small groups of selected disciples. As long as one tries to keep a positive mind state, it can be considered a blessing or inspiration towards the future possibility of practicing in the Kalachakra tantric tradition. If nothing else, it is likely to be a unique experience of an elaborate spiritual ritual.

This rest of this page is mainly intended to give some basic information for people who wish to seriously practice the Kalachakra tantra.

In order to practice, one needs to understand the basics of Buddhism and commitment to it (taking refuge). Furthermore, one must be ready to take the Bodhisattva Vows (part of Mahayana Buddhism), Tantric Vows and having received the Kalachakra Initiation from a qualified Tantric Master. These subjects are briefly explained below.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama (currently the most prominent Kalachakra Master), often emphasizes the importance of these preliminaries, for example during the Kalachakra initiation in Bloomington USA in 1999:


"I would like to congratulate those who are attending here only for the preliminary teachings and not the Kalachakra. Because in actual fact the topics I am covering in the preliminary teachings are the more important elements of the practice. So I would like to express my appreciation for those who are just attending the preliminary teachings.

Those who do the opposite, not attend the preliminary teachings but rather come just for the Kalachakra Empowerment Ceremony, I must admit that these people are more clever than I am. When I announce a Kalachakra Empowerment, because Kalachakra is so popular it attracts people, but what I really intend is to spend time during the preliminary teachings and speak more about the general aspects of the path of the Dharma.

So these people have in fact managed to fool me but of course if among those people who are just attending the Kalachakra teaching if they have a firm grounding in the common paths, the general practices of the Dharma then of course it is fine. But if people simply come for the empowerment with no real grounding in the preliminary practices then simply attending the Kalachakra ceremony alone, I do not know what benefit that can have."


Or, if possible even more direct, Holiness said the following during the Manjusri Initiation in New York City in 1998:

"If one can engage on the Vajrayana path on the basis of a clear understanding of the tantric path, then it can be truly profound and effective. Some Tibetan masters of the past have emphasized many of the significancies of the Vajrayana teachings by the representation of the vajra and bell. The Tibetans say that if one utilizes these implements with a full awareness of their significance and a full understanding of the Vajrayana path, then when one rings the bell it will have a profound symbolism and meaning. But the simple act of playing a bell doesn't really have any profundity. One can see that even cows have bells around their necks and make loud noises.

The reason I point this out is that unfortunately sometimes people in their rush to attain Vajrayana teachings because of the way in which it is promoted as the best, highest and quickest, people hastily rush to receiving initiations without full realization of what it involves and what is its true significance. There is a real danger that one's ringing a bell is like the cow's. This is very true even of the Tibetan Buddhists as well.

When they hear there is an initiation everyone rushes to it with great enthusiasm. But if someone hears there is a series of lectures taking place on Buddhism then they say, "Oh yes, well….." Sometimes I exploit this weakness and use it to my advantage. I announce there is a Kalachakra initiation and everybody rushes to it. I do the Kalachakra ceremony last and very fast but I spend much more time explaining the key elements and a general overview of the Buddhist path. That way they have to sit and listen to them. This is my skillful means! Although I thought I was rather smart but some of the students are even smarter. They make sure they arrive only exactly on the Kalachakra initiation day."


BUDDHISM IN A NUTSHELL

Buddhism is a religious practice started by the historical Buddha Shakyamuni some 2,500 years ago. It can be considered a philosophy and even a type of psychology, but more than anything, it describes a practice to eliminate suffering.

The basis of Buddhist teachings is condensed in the Four Noble Truths:
1. In life, we are confronted with suffering (dukkha in Sanskrit).
2. Suffering is caused by desire/craving and the results of our actions (karma).
3. It is possible to end all suffering and achieve Liberation (nirvana).
4. At the basis of the practice lies the Eight-fold Noble Path, which describes: correct thought/attitude, correct speech, correct actions, correct livelihood, correct understanding, correct effort, correct mindfulness, and correct concentration.
Furthermore, some important aspects of Buddhism are:
- Karma; the fact that our actions have consequences.
- Rebirth; we are all reborn after we die, until we end the 'cycle of death and rebirth' (samsara)
- Renunciation; wishing to be free from suffering and not being attached to the pleasures in the cycle of death and rebirth.
- Meditation; in order to develop ourselves, we need to develop our mind with meditation, so as to limit our negative habits and develop positive qualities.
- Wisdom; conventional wisdom is about taking the right decisions in this world. Ultimate wisdom is to realize that do not possess a permanent self or soul; rather, we are results of causes and conditions, impermanent and nothing exists independently.
As the Buddha said to the villagers of Kalama:

"If it agrees with your experience and reason, and when it is conducive to the good and gain of oneself and all others, then one should accept the teachings, and live up to them."

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BECOME A BUDDHIST?


After someone has decided that the Buddha, his teachings (Dharma) and the spiritual community (Sangha) are worthwhile to practice with confidence, one can commit oneself to Buddhism and its practices by 'taking Refuge'. This is basically a short ceremony with a Master in which one vows to respect and follow the guidelines of the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha. It means that one chooses a direction in life.

For more information, see this page on Refuge.

WHAT IS MAHAYANA BUDDHISM?

There are various schools and lineages in Buddhism, but a major distinction is made between the so-called Northern and Southern schools, mostly Theravada and Mahayana.

In brief, the Theravada school emphasizes practice to achieve nirvana and liberate oneself from the suffering cycle of rebirth as an Arhant.
In the Mahayana schools, the end-goal is to lead all living (sentient) beings away from suffering; in order to do that, one strives to achieve Buddhahood (the ultimately highest evolved state).
Although the philosophical differences between these two schools are not very large, the difference in end-goal (liberation of an Arhant or Buddhahood) creates significant differences in the practice. The Mahayana schools put much emphasis on love and compassion in the practices; and the ideal practitioner is a Bodhisattva; someone who is altruistically intent on liberating all sentient beings.

In all schools, one can take refuge at the beginning of the path, and one can choose ordination to become a novice or fully ordained monk or nun. When one wishes to commit oneself to the Mahayana school, one can also take the Aspiring Bodhicitta Vows and later also the actualBodhisattva Vows, which is independent of the monks' or nuns' ordination, but can only be based on taking refuge first.

More information can be found in this page on Compassion.

WHAT IS BUDDHIST TANTRA?


Tantra is a special type of Buddhist practice, which can lead to rapid development of a disciple towards Buddhahood, so it is a part of the Mahayana tradition. Buddhist tantra was developed in India, but is currently mainly preserved in the Tibetan schools of Buddhism.

Tantra is a 'secret' practice; not because practitioners wish to be special people with privileges, but because the practices require great care, commitment and guidance by a qualified teacher. The techniques used are quite powerful, and if not applied correctly can lead to serious harm for the practitioner and others. Just like driving a car requires several precautions like learning traffic rules and getting acquainted with the car before driving can be reasonably safe, so does tantra require 'preliminaries' before practice can be carried out safely.

The main preliminaries to tantric practice are:
1. Refuge in the Buddha, Dharma (teachings) and Sangha (Buddhist community): having become a Buddhist.
2. Renunciation: a realization is best, but a proper understanding is essential.
3. Bodhicitta: a realization is best, but a proper understanding is essential. For most initiations, it is required to take the aspiring Bodhisattva vows and/or the Bodhisattva vows. The Kalachakra initiation requires both.
4. Wisdom of Emptiness: a direct realization is best, but a proper understanding is essential.
5. Faith/confidence: solid confidence both in the teacher and the teachings is essential to avoid serious karmic problems when doubts arise.
6. Reliance on a spiritual teacher: proper confidence in a teacher and verifying his/her qualifications is essential.
7. Preliminary Practices: depending on the teacher/disciple relationship, a teacher can ask a disciple to carry out a series of specific practices, like recitation of mantras, doing prostrations etc..
8. Empowerment or initiation: without this ceremonial permission to practice by a qualified teacher, tantric practice is improper.
9. Tantric vows (available in restricted area only): for the higher tantric classes, one needs to take tantric vows. These vows are secret to the uninitiated, so students need to take 'a leap of faith' and trust the teacher and the practice before taking them. The Kalachakra tradition also has its own set of Tantric vows to be adhered to.
For much more detailed information, see the Kalachakra section of Alex Berzin's website.

Obviously, it is not easy to describe a whole religion in one page. You could for example have a look at the web-site A View of Buddhism for a more extensive introduction and many links to excellent web-sites.

THE KALACHAKRA INITIATION

To prepare for visiting the actual initiation, and also during the actual initiation, the following texts are more than useful to try to follow what is happening. Of course, the more you are aware of all the steps and visualisations etc., the stronger the imprint of the initiation will be. Also, the structure of the Kalachakra initiation is quite a bit more complex than the other tantric initiations, so proper preparation is really in place if you like to get seriously involved in this practice.

A very good booklet, which also includes a good introduction to the initiation is Taking the Kalachakra Initiation by Alexander Berzin.

On this website: an excellent introduction to Kalachakra and to the taking the initiation is this Explanation of the Kalachakra Initiation by Alexander Berzin.

In our English Resources section, you can find a Study-document; the Detailed Outline of the Kalachakra Empowerment, which describes all the essential steps during the initiation ceremony. This should be very suitable to have with you during an initiation.

An elaborate book with an extensive introduction to tantra, and a transcript of a Kalachakra initiation given by His Holiness the Dalai Lama is found in The Kalachakra Tantra, Rite of Initiation, by Tenzin Gyatso the Dalai Lama and Jeffrey Hopkins. However, as the book gives the initiation procedure as well as His Holiness' advice at the time, it can be hard to follow the initiation procedure itself when trying to listen to the teachings and read the book at the same time.

Other transcripts of Kalachakra initiations can be found in the English Resource Page.

You can find an extended personal impression of a Kalachakra initiation by Erica Hagen.

KALACHAKRA PRACTICE AFTER THE INITIATION

If you have received a Kalachakra initiation, do sign up as Initiate and have a look at the page 'Starting with Kalachakra practice'.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1]: Kalacakra Sadhana and Social Responsibility, David Reigle, Spirit of the Sun Publications 1996.
[2]: An Introduction to the Kalachakra, Geshe Wangdrak (losang Tenzin) Part of paper printed for the 1994 Kalachakra initiation by HHDL in Lahaul, Spiti.
[3]: Kalachakra Initiation, Madison 1981
[4]: The Way to Shambala by Eric Bernbaum
[5]: Path of the Bodhisattva Warrior by Glenn H. Mullin
[6]: Introduction to Kalachakra, commentary by Dr. Alex Berzin June 28 - 30, 1985 at Institut Vajrayogini, France
[7]: The Wheel of Time Sand Mandala, by Barry Bryant, Harper Collins 1995, ISBN 0-06-250088-0
[8]: The Outer Wheel of Time; Vajrayana Buddhist cosmology in the Kalacakra tantra, by John Ronald Newman, Univ. of Wisconsin 1987 (order number 8723348)
[9]: Kalachakra, by Namgyal Monastery, Tibet Domani, Italy1996
[10]: The Inner Kalacakratantra, A Buddhist Tantric View of the Individual, by Vesna A. Wallace (Oxford University press, 2001)
[11]: A Summary of How the Abhisheka and Practice of Shri Kalachakra Was Propagated in India and brought to Tibet. From a booklet distributed during the Kalachakra initiation by His Eminence Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche in August 1990, Toronto.
[12]: The Practice of Kalachakra by Glen H. Mullin (Snow Lion 1991)

LINKS


For general Buddhism, tantra and specifically Kalachakra: Alexander Berzin's website contains much information

Archives of Alex Berzin
Okar Research site (mostly unedited notes).


3 settembre 2012

Guru Rupam




If you want to perceive 
the real nature or form of the Guru 
you must first learn to look 
upon the whole universe as Guru rupam 
[the form of the Guru]. 

One must see the Guru in all living beings. 
It is the same with God. 

You must look upon all objects as God's rupa [form]. 

How can he who does not know his own Self 
perceive the real form of God or the real form of the Guru? 
How can he determine them? 

Therefore, first of all know your own real form and nature.